A terminal can be seen as a service provider towards different transport modalities. To realize an acceptable vessel turnaround time and to provide acceptable service levels to hinterland transport modalities, PCR advices ports, terminal operators and investors in the required infrastructure, materials handling equipment, port related structures, management and operational staffing.
Services that PCR typically provides are:
- Feasibility and investment studies.
- Management and organizational studies.
- Marketing and distribution studies.
- Optimization studies for cargo handling and stacking/storage facilities.
- Definition of Programme of Requirements.
- Basic and detailed design (civil, mechanical, electrical and process control and automation).
- Technical specifications and tender documents.
- Project and construction management.
- Technical inspection and commissioning of plants.
- Operational and management assistance.
- Training of staff and operators.
- Operational and technical audits.
- Trouble shooting and efficiency analysis.
- Upgrading of plants and R&D assistance.
Terminal Planning Methodology
The planning of terminals requires thorough analysis of the existing situation, expected future traffic forecast scenarios, local circumstances and port management models. Rather than directly starting to apply extensive simulation models for the logistical processes, port and terminal planning can often be carried out using queuing theory or empirical methods.
Service level versus investment and operational costs
Based on client’s traffic forecast and vessel arrival patterns and(parcel) size expectations, the required number of berths, size of open and closed storage areas and facilities, number of gate lanes, parking space, railroads, inspection and service areas, quantity and performance of quay cranes and yard equipment etc. are determined for various scenarios. In-house developed models are used to balance service levels towards different terminal users (such as shipping and trucking companies, custom’s and freight forwarders) against investment and operational costs. Various KPI’s (Key Performance Indicators) can be calculated to assist the client in planning investments against market expectations.
Yard size versus dwell-time
The Yard size of a terminal is largely determined by cargo dwell time, stacking density and manoeuvring space. Dwell time is effected by logistical processes both inside and outside the terminal, customs procedures, as well as market prices and client’s strategic goals, and cannot be fully controlled by the stevedore. Average dwell times for different types of cargo (import/export/transhipment) are determined together with the client based on international benchmarks and expected country-specific developments.
Optimization of land
The required stacking density, stacking methods and manoeuvring space are determined based on optimum use of available land. Yard equipment requirements for stacking and horizontal transport are calculated based on average occupancy assumptions as well as peak situations, including internal transport for added value activities (stuffing, stripping, mixing, sieving, packing, etc.).
Due to the extensive experience of PCR in port and terminal planning, PCR can develop your terminal in an optimal way, transferring traffic forecasts and various logistical processes into state-of-the-art conceptual layout drawings or even 3D presentations. Furthermore PCR advices on phasing steps and can take on project and construction management.
If you want to know more about what PCR can mean for your port or terminal or if you have any other enquiries, please contact us!